State policy in the field of innovative development of the country is one of the most discussed topics today. Long-term government strategies for the development of innovative technologies are being developed, an investment fund is being formed, priority areas of financing are being identified, and attempts are being made to commercialize innovations.
How much more effort will be required to invest in this area and what can come of it, we can assume by comparing the examples of the formation of innovative economies of other countries. How applicable is international experience in innovation development to Russia? We are not inventing a bicycle, but only its design.
Certificate of international experience in innovative development
The main stages of the formation of state innovation policy
The history of the emergence of innovative economies shows various examples of the time frames required to launch, accelerate and sustain innovative development. At the same time, there are examples of both countries that have been systematically moving towards innovative development, and examples of countries that have made or begun an innovative breakthrough under the influence of state policy (the reference date in this case, as a rule, is the adoption of a key regulatory act).
In the UK, until the early 2000s, there was no targeted centralized policy to stimulate and develop innovation. In 2003, the UK Department of Commerce and Industry published a government strategy for technological development, and in 2004 a Technology Strategy Council was established that invests in the creation of new technologies, supports their development and commercialization. The relatively holistic innovation strategy for the long-term development of the UK was formulated only in 2008.
The innovative development of Japan and Sweden has been carried out sequentially and has a long history. However, in Sweden only in 2005-2008. 4 priority areas for R&D financing were identified: medicine, biotechnology, the environment and sustainable development, the development of “centers of excellence” in Sweden, which are a combination of research and commercial forces in the interest of rapid and efficient commercialization of innovations .
In Ireland, the transition to an innovative path of development was carried out relatively recently. The Government of Ireland in 2007 allocated 8.2 billion euros for the implementation of the Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation (Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation), which involves improving human capital, physical infrastructure, the development of science, technology and innovation through various projects.
In South Korea, the first innovative development programs have been launched since 1999, and the development of the innovation sector has progressed very rapidly.
Spain’s national innovation strategy was approved in 2010. Guidance on the implementation of ICG is provided by the Ministry of Science and Innovation of Spain (PIM). For the implementation of the ICG from the state budget of the country in 2010, 6720 million euros were allocated.
The main directions of the current regional innovation policy of the Netherlands were set in 2003. The Ministry of Economic Relations has implemented the Path to Innovation: Fighting Lisbon Ambitions program, designed to improve the innovation climate, encourage companies to pursue innovation and concentrate more resources in strategically important areas.
Since 1998, France has had a national plan to stimulate patenting of inventions by domestic firms. In 1999, the Law on Innovation and Scientific Research was adopted, designed to reorganize and modernize the national innovation system in the direction of more efficient commercialization of research potential. The implementation of the law has led to the adoption of a number of government decisions and a special “innovation plan” (2002), the purpose of which is to create a common legal framework that stimulates the development of partnerships between the public scientific sector and non-state actors in the innovation process. From 2007-2008 targeted tax measures have been taken to support investment in innovation.
The first attempts to implement an innovation policy in Denmark were made in the early 1980s, when the government launched a technological development program aimed at developing information technology, which was considered one of the priority areas. For 20 years, Denmark has undergone a full-scale transformation of the applied economic policy – the traditional short-term stabilization policy has been replaced by a long-term structural policy.
The Swiss government has been implementing programs aimed at transitioning the state from an industrial economy to a knowledge-based economy since the 1950s. In the 90s, a structure of government departments was created, which oversees the formation of a knowledge-based economy, an innovative economy that exists today. Since 2007, the government has determined the country’s development priorities and outlined the main innovative sectors with the prospect of industrial implementation, for which the main state resources are allocated.
The beginning of targeted innovation development in Germany refers to the period after the Second World War, when the main role in the formation of the national innovation system was played by state bodies that determined the direction of research activities. In the initial period of the post-war reconstruction of Germany, a special role was played by US assistance under the Marshall Plan, under which financing was provided to enterprises in the most developed sectors of the economy – mechanical engineering, the automotive industry, the chemical industry, etc. Since the 1950s Together with American researchers, joint work was carried out in the fields of space, aviation and nuclear energy, during which the country gained access to American developments.
Financing of innovation subjects in Germany began in the 1950s. from programs of individual targeted support of certain areas. In the period of the 1970s. the first venture funds began to emerge, aimed at developing innovative companies in the small business.
In the 1970s Public-private partnership programs in the research and development sphere began to be implemented, due to which the share of the budget system in R&D expenses decreased from 70% in the 1970s. up to 30% at present.